Green Ceiling™
The moss-tiles belong to a series of RAD experiments in planting the ceiling for healthier and richer interiors. RAD recognizes the ceiling as an untapped site for interior landscapes. It is an undisturbed zone that can be reclaimed by nature and linked to resilient outdoor ecosystem by means of networked embedded technology.

The tile consists of a disposable/recyclable coco mat “cartridge” and an aluminum ‘tray” with integrated sensors, digital readout and wireless communication. The cartridge hosts a variety of common low maintenance moss species including Hypnum, Haircap, Rock Cap, and Cushion moss. They are irrigated by a hand held piston-pump sprayer or alternatively by means of an automated misting system integrated into the drop-ceiling structure. Moisture levels are optimized through embedded humidity sensors.
Internet of Moss
Although discretized as individual elements for stand-alone use or modular aggregation, the DropMoss™ tiles are wirelessly connected to their neighbors and linked to the Internet. They report individually on their status (moisture and pH) and together on ambient environmental conditions (temperature, ambient light, humidity, C02). They join other networked moss communities around the globe in an ecosystem of live correlated data whose feedback serves their resilience and sustainability.

Carol Moukheiber, Christos Marcopoulos, Rodolphe el-Khoury. Team: Andrew Piotrowski, Tommy Reslinski, Samar Sabie

The Hu-Mannequin

Christos Marcopoulos and Carol Moukheiber

Date: 2012

Valentina Mele
Michael Spatafora

Clothes designed by:
Adrian Wu
Erin Holman

IM Blanky

(soft) Hardware:
The blanket measures 7’7” x 4’2” and comprises 104 tilt sensors. They are arrayed in a hexa-grid formation and distributed uniformly over its entire field. The flower-like sensors consist of 6 conductive petal-like pads, radiating from a conductive tassel attached to a powered double-arabesque of conductive wire. The resistance in the current flowing through petal and tassel varies depending on which petal is in contact with the tassel (The R (Ohms) value thus indexes the direction of the tassel). The flowers are arranged in 16 clusters and their stems connected to computational node (Multiplexer). The nodes communicate the fluctuation in current resistance recorded at each flower to a microcontroller stitched to the back of the blanket (Arduino LilyPad). The data is communicated wirelessly to a computer (XBee Shield)

Each flower occupies a hexagonal cell, surrounded by six neighbors. The computation script extrapolates directional vectors from current resistance data and models a slope based on the orientation of that cell in relation to that of its immediate 6 neighbors. The algorithm generates a field of peaks and valleys that gets fine-tuned into a smooth polygonal mesh by negotiating local conditions at each cluster within the behavior parameters of the overall figure (Processing).

Carol Moukheiber, Christos Marcopoulos with Rodolphe el-Khoury (KLF)

Date: 2011

Design and Fabrication: Valentina Mele, Sebastian Savone, Yie Ping See
Programming: Jonah Ross Marrs, Samar Sabie, Dina Sabie


RAD, founded by NMO partners:



Farnsworth Curtain

Carol Moukheiber and Christos Marcopoulos

Date: 2011

Min Woo Kim


In 2004, after five years of severe drought, Las Vegas banned all lawns in any new housing development, allowing ‘desert landscaping’ only. Residents are paid $1 for every square foot of lawn they dig up.

“Long term, we have to keep growing, but it is going to be a different growth. To put it bluntly, in this town we are going to drink what we flush.” — Oscar Goodman, Mayor of Las Vegas

Carol Moukheiber and Chritos Marcopoulos with Don Shillingburg

Dual State Room

A space that responds to fluctuating light levels by continuously modulating its surface to enhance light and mood.

The Dual State Room is a systematically constructed deep infrastructure for controlling the most superficial of tectonic conditions: the wall surface – (the wall paper)

The Dual State Room can change its appearance. One moment it is a warm, sound absorbent walnut veneer, and the next, a cool, reflective fluorescent yellow enamel. The space flip flops between these states, responding to light level fluctuations over the course of the day. When the space is too bright, the wall adopts the wooden side, reducing glare, and offering a feeling of warmth. Conversely, when dark, the wall flips to a highly reflective surface maximizing light levels.


RGB Garden

Heating and Cooling Glass

Heating and Cooling Glass explores the potential for the migration of the central HVAC system into a decentralized modular surface.

The double glazed Heating and Cooling Glass unit is used opportunistically as the site of maximum difference in temperature. Mediating incoming and outgoing air at the envelope takes advantage of the building’s skin as the interface between two different climatic zones. That difference is harnessed— through a Peltier device inserted in the glazing unit—to generate heating and cooling locally, as needed by the user, or as necessitated by weather conditions. By distributing the previously centralized HVAC system into the glazing system, glass becomes not only a visual transmitter of the outside but also a haptic transmitter. In a tactile way, it fulfills the quest of modernism to achieve continuity between inside and outside.

Fresh Air Window

Digital Window

Calculating Wall

NMO Unedited

Invisible House

On the interior, architecture is systematically removed from one’s visual perception, only the objects which escape any form of permanence will appear. During the night, the living room is a black void, and during the day it becomes a white void. At night, only the essential is illuminated. Objects are detected by infrared beams, and illuminated according to their presence and location.

The floor and ceiling are composed of 3.50 cm x 3.50 cm corresponding tiles. The ceiling tile contains a grid of 16 LED lights with infrared sensors.The floor tile has 16 infrared receivers which correspond to the ceiling tile sensors, creating a field of invisible vertical infrared beams within the space. When an object interrupts those beams, the corresponding ceiling LED narrow spotlights turn on.

Team: Patrick Tierney, Michael deJong

Hoover House